The idea of Social Defence emerged from
• the desire to bring about the amelioration of the offender through his re-education &
• the desire to promote the concept that an offender is also a human being to whom human treatment should be applied
The concept of social defence leads to a true judicial humanism; such that punishment must be regulated safely by consideration of social defensc. Prisons are no longer places for detention of criminals only, but have acquired a new dimension as therapeutic centres to reform the personality and behavior pattern of prisoners.
According to the Constitution of India, all the subjects of social defense fall within the jurisdiction of the State Governments. Some of these subjects like criminal law and criminal procedure are on the concurrent list of the constitution but the implementation of legislations pertaining to these areas is the responsibility of the State Governments.
In India, the social defence programme include mainly the following subjects
1. Prevention and control of juvenile delinquency
2. Probation services
3. Prison welfare services
4. Prevention of Immoral Traffic
5. Anti-beggary programmes
6. After- care and rehabilitation of ex-convicts
7. Correctional training and Research